In-text Citation

University courses use standardized formatting, such as MLA and APA.  If you are taking a science course you will probably use APA formatting.  If you are taking a course in the humanities, you will most likely use MLA formatting.

When paraphrasing or using direct quotations it is important to know how to properly format in-text citation.

APA In-Text Citation

If you are using APA in-text citation, you will need to include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and page number.

Abraham Lincoln was challenged to understand the complex issues involved in the war (Smith, 2007, p. 48)

According to Smith (2007), Abraham Lincoln was challenged to understand the complex issues involved in the war (p. 48).

Reedman (2013) stated, “For all appearances the war had ceased, but bitter feelings still lingered in the minds of many” (p. 138).

MLA In-Text Citation

If you are using MLA in-text citation, include the author’s last name and the page number where the paraphrase or quotation was taken.

Abraham Lincoln was challenged to understand the complex issues involved in the war (Smith 56).

According to Smith, Abraham Lincoln was challenged to understand the complex issues involved in the war (56).

Reedman stated, “For all appearances the war had ceased, but bitter feelings still lingered in the minds of many” (284).

If you do not know the author’s name, use an abbreviated form of the title with the page number in parenthetical citation.

“Technology has made it possible to predict how close meteors will travel passed the earth” (“Predicting Meteors” 2).

If your source uses a quote cited by another author, use “qtd. in” to show the original source.

Bates argues that schools must be responsible for “developing curriculum that ensures students succeed academically” (qtd. in Gibson 342).

When citing from the internet, if known, give the author’s name, article title, and website name.  It is not necessary to give a page number.

According to pacific.edu, “Actions in the digital world can have far-reaching consequences in real life” (“Online Social Networking”).

Web address should be written in the short form.  Ex: newstartclub.com verses http://newstartclub.com.